Understanding the dynamics of leadership: A case study on Jeff Bezos and Jack Ma
This paper analyzes the leadership approach of two leaders, the founder of Amazon.com, Jeff Bezos, and the founder and executive chairman of Alibaba Group, Jack Ma. It incorporates their decision-making style, problem-solving mechanisms, and their concerns for the overall globe making them “global leaders.” This paper critically compares the implications of their approaches to comprehensive employee motivation and company performance. This paper deviates away from “The Great Man Theory” and emphasizes on “Bandura Social Learning Theory” which emphasizes leadership as a process which can be practiced and learned. This paper summarizes their legacy in the business world and the paradigm shift that they brought in the way of doing business.
Keywords: leadership, case study on jeff bezos, case study on jack ma
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Transition from linear to circular economy
The contemporary model of economical production and consumption is not sustainable; if the pattern continues, humankind will need to scramble for resources. Currently, resource extraction from the earth is 1.7 times higher than her actual capacity (Watts, 2018). This paper stresses the importance of the shift from the current linear (take, make and dispose) modality to a circular (take, make and reutilize) model to maximize the value from a product by keeping it in the loop of circularity. In pursuit of this change in model, reverse logistics, performance economy, and sharing economy all need to be integrated in order to facilitate regenerative and restorative techniques which enable reusing, recycling, remanufacturing and refurbishing of resources. Businesses need to redesign and restructure their current processes so that they can reduce the consumption of resources, thus developing a competitive edge. Incineration and dumping of resources should be the last option. The assets that are able to sense, record and communicate information are referred to as “intelligent assets” which innovates “smart solutions” to enable a circular economy (MacArthur, 2016). But this paradigm shift is not possible alone through the effort of a single entity. Involvement and commitments from individual, regional, governmental and intra-governmental levels are mandatory as it helps to create a synergist effect.
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A Survey on Understanding the Perception and Awareness Towards a Circular Economy: A Comparative Study Between Nepal and the USA
This article offers a comparative analysis of the perception and awareness people have concerning the circular economy (CE) in Nepal and the United States of America (USA). The survey in the form of online questionnaires were distributed through convenience sampling and data was collected from 29 respondents in Nepal and 25 in the USA. The results indicate that, across the sampled countries, though respondents were highly concerned about the environment and resources utilization, their perception and understanding of CE principals and its applicability were limited to the concept of reuse, recycle and remanufacture (3R). Similarly, organizational involvement in CE activities were found to be significantly low in both countries, indicating no structural or operational level support such as creating job positions for CE officers. Additionally, the practice of publishing sustainability and circularity reports to enable the CE were not found during the data analysis procedure. In comparison to Nepal, USA respondents picked inter and intra organizational collaboration and cooperation along with research and development (R&D) as an important enabler of CE. Finally, policy level interventions through mandatory and voluntary regulations, subsidization of CE activities and involvement of governmental and non-governmental agencies were recommended in creating a positive perception and awareness of CE.
A Study on Assessing a Business Viability for Transition to a Circular Economy
The shift from the existing linear model of the economy to a circular model is gaining traction across business entities, nationally and globally. Minimal studies have been done that would support the circular transition for a business from an existing linear model. There is a significant gap between the formulation and implementation of circular strategies in business. This literature review explores the preexisting concepts of the business model canvas (BMC) and Value Hill tool for the implementation of circular strategies in a business by determining a Good Point for Transition (GPT). The favorable condition, where a business can transition from a linear economy (LE) to a circular economy (CE) is defined as a GPT. This study suggests a three-step generic process that would provide a company with clarity on how to incorporate circular strategies into their structure. Firstly, this review paper defines and elaborates upon the business model canvas (BMC) based on the prior work of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) and Lewandowski (2016). Secondly, it analyzes the Value Hill diagram, a strategic tool for circular activities that a business can use upon implementation of a circular model (Achterberg et al., 2016). Finally, this work will indicate how a circular strategy can be selected on the basis of assessment of the BMC and Value Hill diagram of a business. For a better understanding of the process, IKEA’s initiatives for circular strategies are used in the study. The paper concludes with a three-step generic model for determining GPT and emphasizes that the adoption of circular strategies for companies depends upon the circular expertise and resources they and their value chain partners have across the Value Hill diagram.
Keywords: Viability for transition, circular economy, diagram of a business