Publications


Article 1: Assessment of Efficacy of Lab-Based Learning in Enhancing Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking Among Learners

Abstract:
With technological innovations happening at workplaces, 21st century organizations demand competencies in thinking creatively and critically. These two skills will potentially help prospective employees become confident individuals, concerned citizens, self-directed learners, and active professionals. In this context, it becomes imperative to overhaul the lecture-based and banking model of the traditional pedagogical approach in order to impart such skills among undergraduate and graduate students. To address this issue, a lab-based teaching-learning method focused on problem-solving and design thinking was introduced at OAMK Labs in Finland. This study assesses the efficacy of lab-based learning in enhancing creativity and critical thinking among students from engineering, management, and science backgrounds of Kathmandu University, Nepal. The study was conducted in a workshop setting using a randomized control trial (RCT) where participants were divided into control and treatment groups. Participants in treatment group took part in a design thinking workshop that applied lab-based learning pedagogy, while those in the control group were given some reading material on improving creativity and critical thinking. Standard tests on both critical and creative thinking in a pre- and post-stages were administered to both groups. Data was analyzed using standard Difference-in-Differences technique. The results showed that while the level of critical thinking improved significantly, among the learners in treatment group alone, the creativity level in the post-stage increased significantly among learners in both groups. Results validated the efficacy of lab-based teaching-learning in addressing the need for critical and creative thinking skills among learners.

Keywords: critical thinking, creativity, lab-based learning, innovation, higher education, Difference-in-Differences.

Full Text PDF: Assessment of Efficacy of Lab-Based Learning in Enhancing Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking Among Learners


Advice for a communicative learning environment

Abstract:

Currently the Philippines is the last country in Asia implementing a ten-year education plan providing education until tenth grade before students reach university level. The education change will aid future Filipino professionals to compete globally since it is the recognized standard throughout the world. However, with expanding pressure for EFL teachers to implement new programs and systems it has left a gap between students being proficient academically and communicatively at the same time. The issue continues to increase since inappropriate implementation of activities leave students perceiving the communicative approach as frivolous and unproductive. As a result, students do not appreciate an active learning environment in the classroom.

Full Text PDF: Advice for a Communicative Learning Environment


Teacher trainers’ perspectives and practices regarding written corrective feedback in L2 writing: A mixed-methods study in a Venezuelan university

Abstract:
This study takes place at a university in Venezuela where Spanish is the first language. The participants are teacher trainers on a five-year program in a subject area called English Practice, where future English language teachers develop their language skills. Adopting an interpretive stance by examining qualitative and quantitative data gathered from two online questionnaires, this exploratory research aims to explore the practices and beliefs teacher trainers have regarding written corrective feedback (WCF) on their learners’ writing in English. The findings reveal that trainers use more than one WCF strategy, favouring the use of codes and the provision of the correct form; the trainers report they aim to correct all errors encountered in their students’ written productions since they think it improves learners’ grammar accuracy while raising their language awareness. Data demonstrate that trainers WCF beliefs are influenced by previous experiences as language learners, institutional guidelines, views of second language teaching and learning and teacher development programs. Results show that trainers believe they should adopt a more rigorous WCF approach with pre-service teachers than with other learners due to the fact trainees are regarded as prospective language models who need to avoid errors in their future teaching practice.

Full Text PDF: Teacher trainers’ perspectives and practices regarding written corrective feedback in L2 writing: A mixed-methods study in a Venezuelan university


Rejecting the gender binaries in Hunger Games trilogy

Abstract:
Suzanne Collins, in Hunger Games trilogy, challenges the traditional gender roles by creating mavericks—characters that do not fit into just one gender box but possess both masculine and feminine characteristics. Dystopian novels are all cautionary in nature; alarming us about the gloomy tomorrow if we do not correct our behavior at present. Even though Collins has set her stage in a dystopian world, her gender politics find resonance in the contemporary world.

Keywords: Gender binaries, Hunger Games Trilogy

Full Text PDF: Rejecting the gender binaries in Hunger Games trilogy


Finding balance in a spiritually diverse classroom: A teacher’s guide to awareness, sensitivity, and respect

Abstract:
While many scholars focus on the spirituality of the teacher and its effects on a class (Byler, 2009; Purgason, 2009; Morgan, 2009; Ferris, 2009), the students’ spirituality and how it reveals itself in the classroom cannot be disregarded (Vandrick, 2009; Smith, 2009). Students have the potential to add and change any classroom dynamic through the beliefs they have. These spiritual beliefs can influence student reactions in communicative activities and interactions with teachers and peers. Learning motivation and attitude can also be linked to a student’s spiritual or religious identity (Lepp-Kaethler & Dornyei, 2013). Learners should be free to be themselves and think for themselves in class, without any occurring bias or coercion. (Brown, 2009) This paper provides suggested approaches of how teachers can maintain balance in a classroom of religiously diverse students, allowing for the expression of various beliefs, while being aware, sensitive, and respectful of those variances.

Full Text PDF: Finding balance in a spiritually diverse classroom: A teacher’s guide to awareness, sensitivity, and respect


When parents become students: An examination of experiences, needs, and opportunities which contribute to student parent engagement in community college

Abstract:
While college and university student profiles are changing rapidly, many of our practices and support systems are geared to traditional student profiles. This article focuses on findings from a recent study examining the experiences of student parents enrolled in community colleges, and examines the kinds of student services that help student parents remain engaged in their classes and persist to graduation. This study offers insight on transformative practices for supporting non-traditional, student parents on community college campuses. This study offers a paradigm shift for advisors, counselors and faculty at higher education institutions so that they may effectively engage and support student parents. The research includes student parents who have one or more dependent children aged 17 or younger and who are enrolled as full-time or part-time students. The study investigates some of the barriers to student parent success as well as the challenges they face. The study identifies, describes, and analyzes the support services which are being utilized by student parents, and review successful models of support in surrounding institutions. Nora’s (2006) Student Engagement Model is used as a theoretical framework for this study. The results from this study should be of interest to student affairs professionals and higher education administrators alike, as they reflect the needs and challenges of the growing student parent population and inspire those searching for ways on how to support this unique, growing community of students.

Full Text PDF: When parents become students: An examination of experiences, needs, and opportunities which contribute to student parent engagement in community college


Language awareness and the education of non-native English teachers in South America: TLA concept review and implications

Abstract:
Reflecting upon language allows teachers, not only to have a greater insight on how English, the language they teach works in the “real world”, but also helps them design activities for their learners to discover language by themselves while, as stated by Bolitho (2003), promoting independent and critical thinking in their classrooms. This paper explores the implications and theoretical foundations of introducing Language Awareness activities as part of the curriculum in teacher education programs in South America. Because of its length, this paper does not intend to recommend a solution to the issue but analyses the theories that support the inclusion of TLA activities as part of the English Language teacher training and education curriculum. Besides, it forecasts the implications derived from such implementation and changes.

Full Text PDF: Language awareness and the education of non-native English teachers in South America: TLA concept review and implications


Family businesses and management information systems (MIS): Seven wise steps to become more electronically intelligent

Abstract:
Turning a brick-and-mortar family business into an E-business, would greatly pay off, and bring every manager’s dream come true, since it has the potential of creating a sustainable growth (Baltzan & Phillips, 2015). This paper will introduce the step by step guidelines for managers.

Keywords: family business, management information systems, become electronically intelligent

Full Text PDF: Family businesses and management information systems (MIS): Seven wise steps to become more electronically intelligent


Research in writing instruction and assessment: Current and needed research to improve student writing

Abstract:
Discussions among educators at almost any level will invariably result in one point of agreement: students at all levels are under-prepared in writing skills. Unfortunately, this is a conclusion that also predominates much of the research literature on the improvement of student writing as well. Despite the importance attached to high-stakes academic writing skills, research has contributed little insight about the challenges students face with academic writing tasks. Llosa, Beck, and Zhao (2011) point out that the National Commission on Writing in America’s Schools and Colleges found that this lack of understanding of the writing process was so significant that they identified writing as, the “Neglected ‘R’ (National Commission on Writing, 2003; Llosa, Beck and Zhao, 2011). In the following paper, authors Caldwell and Outcault Hill present a broad review of the areas of research into the writing process and assessment of writing and suggest areas where further research is needed. Their discussion focuses on 1) Research related to the influence of Cognitive function on the writing process, 2) Research into teaching various genres such as exposition, argument, narrative, analysis, and creative writing, 3) Research on the assessment of writing, and finally, 4) Research on alternative teaching methods.

Full Text PDF: Research in writing instruction and assessment: Current and needed research to improve student writing


The examination of the test of English as a foreign language (TOEFL): Evident disparities between world englishes and standard English

Abstract:
While many English Language Learners (ELLs) embark on a path towards higher education in universities centered around Standardized English, they must undergo rigorous training to prepare for these demanding TOEFL exams. Students that have been exposed to World Englishes, or lingua francas, for communicative purposes are now asked to abandon these English varieties to assume the elevated importance of the Standardized form of English implemented across universities around the world. This paper analyzes the juxtaposition and negotiation of these languages as learners are often encumbered with not only linguistic barriers but cultural hindrances that contribute to identity displacement. As language is deeply entrenched in one’s cultural background, it is necessary to reflect on how these English proficiency exams negate the learner’s L1 along with the unique qualities that they strongly identify with.

Full Text PDF: The examination of the test of English as a foreign language (TOEFL): Evident disparities between world englishes and standard English


Osterwalder’s business model canvas: Its genesis, features, comparison, benefits and limitations

Abstract:
This essay is a brief exploration of Osterwalder’s Business Model Canvas. The author discusses the genesis of the Business Model Canvas, the unique features of the approach of the Business Model Canvas, and then compares the Business Model Generation to other business model approaches. Finally, the benefits and/or limitations of using Osterwalder’s business model canvas in the context of the author’s organization – a higher education organization, are examined.

Full Text PDF: Osterwalder’s business model canvas: Its genesis, features, comparison, benefits and limitations


Understanding the dynamics of leadership: A case study on Jeff Bezos and Jack Ma

Abstract:
This paper analyzes the leadership approach of two leaders, the founder of Amazon.com, Jeff Bezos, and the founder and executive chairman of Alibaba Group, Jack Ma. It incorporates their decision-making style, problem-solving mechanisms, and their concerns for the overall globe making them “global leaders.” This paper critically compares the implications of their approaches to comprehensive employee motivation and company performance. This paper deviates away from “The Great Man Theory” and emphasizes on “Bandura Social Learning Theory” which emphasizes leadership as a process which can be practiced and learned. This paper summarizes their legacy in the business world and the paradigm shift that they brought in the way of doing business.

Keywords: leadership, case study on jeff bezos, case study on jack ma

Full Text PDF: Understanding the dynamics of leadership: A case study on Jeff Bezos and Jack Ma


Sociocultural factors in the success of Vietnamese English learners

Abstract:
This research paper analyzes the current English learning and teaching situation in Vietnam through collated data from both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources were taken from the survey entitled, “Factors influencing Vietnamese learners’ success in learning English” (see Appendix A). The survey asked participants to describe their demographics and opinions about teaching and learning English in Vietnam. The participants consisted of the author’s living and teaching network, which was comprised of 31.8% acquaintances and 68.2% students at the Premier Language School. The secondary sources were compiled from scholarly articles, news, books, and online sources. These sources provide a broad scope when looking into the country’s identified issues concerning English learning and teaching.

Keywords: vietnamese english learners, factors influencing vietnamese learners, english learning and teaching, sociocultural factors

Full Text PDF: Sociocultural factors in the success of Vietnamese English learners


Hollow marketing and nongredients: A new marketing approach by food industries in advertising

Abstract:
Many firms that are selling food products, are hoping to get more of customers’ attention, and increase their sales by new marketing strategies. Informing customers about ingredients and health claims look normal but advertising the things that can’t inherently and naturally exist in their food, or “nongredients,” are new practices that have been termed in this paper as “hollow marketing.” This paper explains this new phenomenon, and its possible economic and social outcomes.

Keywords: marketing approach, food industries marketing approach, get more customer attention

Full Text PDF: Hollow marketing and nongredients: A new marketing approach by food industries in advertising


Emotional intelligence in higher education: Perspectives of Nepalese college students

Abstract:
This paper explores the perspective of college students regarding emotional intelligence in higher education. A great number of changes in the education system globally has developed new expectations for teachers. These days, teachers are not just the authority in a classroom but a mentor. Thus, emotions play a significant role in the teaching and learning process. This paper argues that mastery in subject matter does not make the best teacher in the eyes of students, rather emotional intelligence does. Emotional intelligence is neither the opposite of intelligence nor just the battle between mind and heart, but it is the unique intersection of both. Quantitative research was done with 201 college students from different educational backgrounds. The data was analyzed with the theoretical modality influenced by Daniel Goleman’s ‘Emotional Intelligence’ method. The first part of the research explores what aspects of teacher’s students associate with being the best, and the second portion explores what behaviors the students want in their teachers in general. This research helps to identify emotional intelligence, a new domain introduced in the teaching and learning process, as significant, even from the student’s perspective.

Full Text PDF: Emotional intelligence in higher education: Perspectives of Nepalese college students


Improving written communication among English language learners

Abstract:
Teachers of English language learners (ELL) face two important tasks. First, they must help students master the content of a specific subject matter and compile evidence that students can demonstrate mastery. Second, they must help students achieve proficiency in academic English, both orally and in writing. In this short article, the authors would like to share some of the practical techniques researchers have found for helping students master the content of a specific subject matter and offer suggestions to help ELL students begin mastering the difficult task of communicating in writing.

Full Text PDF: Improving written communication among English language learners


CALL’s effectiveness in the process of second language teaching

Abstract:
This paper is presented to illustrate the importance of technology in education. It discusses several factors playing a significant role in the teaching and learning processes. This paper shows how contemporary learners apply various strategies of learning implementing technology for support. This study considers the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing technology in educational settings by examining current evidence-based research and different points of view.

Keywords: second language teaching effectiveness, teaching and learning process, strategies of learning implementing technology, utilizing technology in education

Full Text PDF: CALL’s effectiveness in the process of second language teaching


Infringement cases of intellectual properties

Abstract:
Intellectual properties are collected ideas and concepts that originated from different sources, such as an individual or company. The entity who carries the title of being the owner of the idea has the sole right in copying or duplicating his own concepts. Despite entitlement of ownership, many people step across the perimeter of the boundaries set by the author. This type of violation is called copyright infringement, where ideas are copied and used without the approval of the originator. The focus of this paper is to discuss some of the companies who are involved in infringement issues like Napster, Bertelsmann, and Blackberry. They were sued by Metallica, Electric and Musical Industries (EMI) and Universal Studios respectively. Additionally, making use of one’s invention without the permission of the inventor is called patent infringement. It violates the exclusive rights given by the federal government to the maker of the innovation. NTP Inc., a company with no technology of its own and Oxbo both violated patent rights and were sued by Research in Motion (RIM) and H&S Manufacturing respectively. Each of these cases will be discussed in detail considering various facts, violations, court rulings, and financial damages.

Keywords: infringement cases, intellectual properties

Full Text PDF: Infringement cases of intellectual properties


Making the most of introverted leadership in the world of extroverts

Abstract:
In this competitive world everyone strives to become a good leader. Generally, people have a notion that extroverts are better leaders than introverts (Cain, 2013). But recent results (Cain, 2013), are in contradiction with these peoples’ beliefs. As we advance in our careers, individual expectations increase as we need to collaborate with others for the growth of the organization (Helgoe, 2013). Due to these expectations, extroverts have the edge when compared to introverts, and hence, this leads to the capabilities of introverts being overlooked (Eve-Cahoon, 2003). It is a general human tendency to define confidence with a person’s level of loudness. As per the research by Laney (2002), loudness should not be a criterion to measure confidence. Being perplexed about our own behavior is the biggest mistake people make. Firstly, people need to understand which scale they pertain to. The research says the best way to understand this scale is by paying attention to what we do, not what we think or say (Cain, 2013). This article gives knowledge about how an introvert holds the capabilities to lead groups and inspire others. Various characteristics of introverted leadership are described with real-time examples and statistics to articulate the difference between extrovert and introvert leadership styles. The goal is not to change introverted leaders, instead it is to understand their preferences and use it as a strength (Kahnweiler, 2009).

Full Text PDF: Making the most of introverted leadership in the world of extroverts


Direct assessment of second language writing: Holistic and analytic scoring

Abstract:
Direct assessment of second language (L2) writing skill, in which a student is usually assessed by means of an essay on a topic during a limited time period, has been used as a valid measurement of ability to write in comparison to indirect assessment of writing through multiple choices. Although both direct and indirect assessments have a risk of reliability, it is effectively argued that direct assessment is more representative of the integrative aspects of writing (Coffman,1966; Morris-Friehe & Leuenberger, 1992). In this era of globalization, a large number of culturally and linguistically diverse students seek higher education in North America. Direct assessment of L2 writing skill is widely used to assess these newly arrived students’ English proficiency for placement decisions at the beginning of their university programs in the target language. As such, understanding direct assessment of L2 writing is paramount to improve assessment procedures for test validity and fairness. This article reviews direct assessment of L2 writing in the existent research literature with an attention to its two major scoring rubrics: holistic and analytic. The literature review concludes that the purpose of the writing task is significant in deciding which scoring method to use in specific contexts.

Full Text PDF: Direct assessment of second language writing: Holistic and analytic scoring


The historical retrospect of an overlooked business opportunity within the aerospace sector

Abstract:
The aerospace sector is a dynamic, highly technology-driven industry with a remarkable societal impact. Partially fueled by air transportation and space exploration, the United States aerospace and defense industry generated 143 billion worth in exports in 2017. In light of conventional marketing and management practices pertaining to product development, traditional, non-adaptive product life-cycle management often falls short in this industry, explicitly under circumstances when the customer experience is neglected on a holistic level. Notably, such an approach could indeed result in overlooked business opportunities and strategic planning inconsistencies. In this paper, a specific overlooked aerospace business opportunity is dissected with objectives to depict the potential existence of secondary markets and to suggest a holistic approach to product life-cycle management.

Keywords: aerospace sector, business opportunity within the aerospace sector, business opportunity, space exploration

Full Text PDF: The historical retrospect of an overlooked business opportunity within the aerospace sector


Decision maker’s tool: Statistics, the problem solver

Abstract:
The primary objective of every investor is to see how his money grows. No matter where one decides to plant or invest his money, there is an inevitable process that follows. The important thing is to closely monitor events and record every detail of information. Unless there is a proper system, issues will build and may become difficult to manage. This is the main reason why there are tools which are necessary to use when planting the seeds for investments. These tools are packed into one parcel and referred to as statistics. The term statistics will refer to descriptive and inferential statistics, probability, parametric and non-parametric tests, time series, and business intelligence. This paper will define statistical gears which are normally used by business managers to gather and analyze data for planning and decision-making. It will further highlight how the elements of statistics can build a strong pillar to run a business and alleviate potential challenges through the use of a tool known as the problem solver.

Full Text PDF: Decision maker’s tool: Statistics, the problem solver


Addressing the United Nations’ sustainable development goals in Germany

Abstract:
This paper takes a critical look at the United Nations’ sustainable development goals in regard to Germany. This paper will further examine three of the seventeen goals laid out for 2030 focusing on determining what efforts and proposed solutions towards ending poverty, eradicating hunger and achieving gender equality are undertaken. The issues of poverty, hunger and gender equity are an additional source of tension for Germany as they seek to address these concerns domestically while acting as a responsible leader internationally.

Full Text PDF: Addressing the United Nations’ sustainable development goals in Germany


Transition from linear to circular economy

Abstract:
The contemporary model of economical production and consumption is not sustainable; if the pattern continues, humankind will need to scramble for resources. Currently, resource extraction from the earth is 1.7 times higher than her actual capacity (Watts, 2018). This paper stresses the importance of the shift from the current linear (take, make and dispose) modality to a circular (take, make and reutilize) model to maximize the value from a product by keeping it in the loop of circularity. In pursuit of this change in model, reverse logistics, performance economy, and sharing economy all need to be integrated in order to facilitate regenerative and restorative techniques which enable reusing, recycling, remanufacturing and refurbishing of resources. Businesses need to redesign and restructure their current processes so that they can reduce the consumption of resources, thus developing a competitive edge. Incineration and dumping of resources should be the last option. The assets that are able to sense, record and communicate information are referred to as “intelligent assets” which innovates “smart solutions” to enable a circular economy (MacArthur, 2016). But this paradigm shift is not possible alone through the effort of a single entity. Involvement and commitments from individual, regional, governmental and intra-governmental levels are mandatory as it helps to create a synergist effect.

Full Text PDF: Transition from linear to circular economy


Human creativity and artificial intelligence (AI): Two distinct requirements for sustainable competitive advantage

Abstract:
Increasing competition among industries requires them to be intelligent in order to make their best decisions and remain competitive in the market. Nowadays both human and artificial intelligence have made many contributions to this purpose and have helped businesses tremendously to achieve their goals. This paper explains why industries need to realize that intelligence and creativity are two distinct disciplines, and each needs to be treated differently in combination with artificial intelligence (AI) in order to maintain a sustainable competitive advantage in the future.

Full Text PDF: Human creativity and artificial intelligence (AI): Two distinct requirements for sustainable competitive advantage


Adult learning and the advantages of the online learning experience

Abstract:
This paper discusses several benefits of the online educational experience, specifically as it pertains to the adult learner. The paper focuses on the aspects of collaboration, flexibility, and cultural opportunities. The work concludes that online education is ideal for adult learners because of the aspects of collaboration, flexibility, and diversity it provides utilizing the constructivist approach.

Full Text PDF: Adult learning and the advantages of the online learning experience


Women’s entrepreneurial ecosystem in Nepal: A study based on Kathmandu Valley

Abstract:
Entrepreneurship, traditionally seen as a male preserve, has witnessed increasing participation from females in recent years. Across the world, the number of enterprises being run by women is growing exponentially. Nepal is not an exception to this emerging trend. However, there are embedded structural and socio-cultural constraints which pose a challenge to the growth of women entrepreneurs and the stability of the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Nepal. Through qualitative research, this article attempts to study the phenomenon of the entrepreneurship of women and explore the status-quo and the policy framework for female entrepreneurs in Nepal. This article explores the current entrepreneurial environment for Nepalese women, as well as the issues and challenges associated with it. This study was conducted within the Kathmandu valley and samples of the study were drawn from various stakeholders comprising of financial institutions, government agencies, I/NGOs, venture capitalists and women entrepreneurs. The data required for the study was obtained via in-depth personal interviews, key informants’ interviews and literature reviews from a variety of well-researched journals and articles. The six-factor model, inclusive of social, economic, competitive, facilitating, locational and political aspects identified by Bulsara, Chandwani and Gandhi (2014), has been assessed to understand the inherent challenges. Additionally, a political, economic, social, technological, environmental and legal (PESTEL) framework has been used to analyse insights from current women in the Nepalese entrepreneurial ecosystem. This study revealed that the process of lengthy documentation, bureaucratic hassles, political uncertainty, unconducive business environments, corruption, strikes, and unionization are the concurrent factors affecting the entrepreneurial environment in Nepal. On the policy side, though an amendment has been made in the Nepal Enterprise Act to support the entrepreneurship of women, the effectiveness of the policy support is still questioned.

Full Text PDF: Women’s entrepreneurial ecosystem in Nepal: A study based on Kathmandu Valley


Reading as a basis of vocabulary growth: Application to an EFL setting

Abstract:
This paper will explore the critical roles of vocabulary development and teaching reading as a basis of vocabulary growth in an advanced English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom. An application is promoted from the discussion, which identifies the interrelation between reading and vocabulary growth (Krashen, 1989; Horst, Cobb, Cobb, & Meara, 1998; Waring &Nation, 2004; Hunt & Beglar; 2005). The quality of a reading text and the learners’ interests are considerations that must be taken into account for improved vocabulary instruction.

Full Text PDF: Reading as a basis of vocabulary growth: Application to an EFL setting

Leading the change with six images of a change leader

Abstract:
Change is constant, and it is a continuous norm. It has even been said that, “to refuse to change is to be left behind” (anonymous). While difficult, this is still something that both individuals and organizations must cope with. The world is constantly changing, which explains why individuals and organizations that are open to change continue to survive. Many researchers have argued that an organization may only achieve a successful change when there is effective leadership. Effective leaders are those who understand when to change and how much to change. The purpose of this paper is to reiterate the importance of leadership in implementing a successful and transformational change in an organization. It will further explore a body of literature that supports and identifies roles leaders take on in the change management process.

Keywords: six images of change leader, effective leadership, when to change and how much to change, importance of leadership

Full Text PDF: Leading the change with six images of a change leader


Entrepreneurial Intention Among Business Students: The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education

Abstract:
In Nepal, the history of entrepreneurship education is emerging and only few higher educational institutions, such as King’s College, Kathmandu University School of Management, Presidential Business School, DAV Business School and Apex College are offering entrepreneurship related courses. Entrepreneurship education is emerging as a subject matter, and institutions are establishing entrepreneurship curriculum and incubation centers to support future entrepreneurs. Research is needed to further explore this subject in terms of its theory and practice in Nepal educational institutes. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention considering the theory derived from the planned behavior model (Ajzen, 1991). A stratified random sampling technique was used to select respondents and a standard Likert item questionnaire was distributed amongst 280 business management students who were in their final year at selected colleges. The colleges selected were those who offered entrepreneurship related courses. A total of 181 responses were recorded and used for the analysis. Descriptive analysis, Cronbach’s alpha reliability analysis, a multiple linear regression, an ordinary least square test, a correlation matrix, an independent sample T-test and the ANOVA test were implemented in SPSS 20 to determine the relationship between entrepreneurship education and entrepreneurial intention. After analyzing the responses, it was found that entrepreneurship education had a positive but insignificant relationship with entrepreneurial intention. In specific, entrepreneurship education improves the attitude of behavior towards entrepreneurial intention and the perceived behavioral control of students but was found to have insignificant impact on the subjective norm.

Full Text PDF: Entrepreneurial Intention Among Business Students: The Effect of Entrepreneurship Education


A Survey on Understanding the Perception and Awareness Towards a Circular Economy: A Comparative Study Between Nepal and the USA

Abstract:
This article offers a comparative analysis of the perception and awareness people have concerning the circular economy (CE) in Nepal and the United States of America (USA). The survey in the form of online questionnaires were distributed through convenience sampling and data was collected from 29 respondents in Nepal and 25 in the USA. The results indicate that, across the sampled countries, though respondents were highly concerned about the environment and resources utilization, their perception and understanding of CE principals and its applicability were limited to the concept of reuse, recycle and remanufacture (3R). Similarly, organizational involvement in CE activities were found to be significantly low in both countries, indicating no structural or operational level support such as creating job positions for CE officers. Additionally, the practice of publishing sustainability and circularity reports to enable the CE were not found during the data analysis procedure. In comparison to Nepal, USA respondents picked inter and intra organizational collaboration and cooperation along with research and development (R&D) as an important enabler of CE. Finally, policy level interventions through mandatory and voluntary regulations, subsidization of CE activities and involvement of governmental and non-governmental agencies were recommended in creating a positive perception and awareness of CE.

Full Text PDF: A Survey on Understanding the Perception and Awareness Towards a Circular Economy: A Comparative Study Between Nepal and the USA


The Quest for Managing Stroke through A Mobile Device Application: A Review Study of Innovative Technologies Related to Cerebrovascular Accident

Abstract:
Stroke, also known as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is the fifth leading cause of death for Americans, accounting for 140,000 lives each year (“Stroke facts,” 2017). CVA marks 1 out of every 20 deaths and nearly 75% of all strokes occur in people aged 65 years and above (Centers for disease control,” 2017). As a leading cause of long-term disability, stroke can have devastating effects on patients and their caregivers. Despite a number of emerging technologies that could potentially be helpful in the prevention, evaluation, and rehabilitation of strokes, typically, such technologies are limited and only considered for millennials. Similarly, at the present time, there is not a single platform designed specifically for stroke management. This makes access to relevant CVA information for baby boomers and the elderly challenging and the potential edification process rather inefficient. The key objective of this review is to identify and discuss effective technologies that can assist baby boomers, born between 1946 and 1964 in the United States, to manage CVA and further explore possible concerns of baby boomers associated with awareness and accessibility of the aforementioned technologies.

Full Text PDF: The Quest for Managing Stroke through A Mobile Device Application: A Review Study of Innovative Technologies Related to Cerebrovascular Accident


The Formal Deviant: The Innovative Features of E. E. Cummings’s ‘next to of course god america i’

Abstract:
This article explores the modernist American poet, E. E. Cummings, and his experimentations with the traditional sonnet form in poetry. E. E. Cummings was an influenced by cubism and used the principles of this form to stylize his poetry. He changed the nature of the sonnet form, as seen in his political poem and satire, ‘Next of course god america i’, which this article will explore through close reading and literary analysis.

Full Text PDF: The Formal Deviant: The Innovative Features of E. E. Cummings’s ‘next to of course god america i’


Debtor’s and creditor’s stronghold: Bankruptcy chapter 7, 11 & 13

Abstract:
Bankruptcy law is created to protect debtors from the hands of creditors. This law ensures creditors repay loans by engaging in a particular process. The United States Congress has enacted a decree governing bankruptcy in the form of the Bankruptcy Code. The different types of bankruptcy will be referred to in this article by their chapters: Chapter 7, 11 and 13 (Justia, 2019). This article will identify the differences between these three chapters, their objectives, as well as the advantages and repercussions of each. Further, the non-dischargeable debts, recommendable actions for the filers, numbers of petitioners who have undergone bankruptcy cases, the financial ratio of the petitioners, the common denominator on the filers, and the methodology performed by the chief executive officer (CEO) of the four companies, Coldwater Creek, Kmart, SEARS and Toys “R” Us, will be analyzed. Additionally, the design and methodology for reviving each company that were implemented and applied by each CEO will be examined, and the reasons they were proven ineffective will be offered. By investing more, borrowing can become essential and, liabilities can grow beyond what could be repaid. This results in the filing of bankruptcy for protection from creditors.

Full Text PDF: Debtor’s and creditor’s stronghold: Bankruptcy chapter 7, 11 & 13


U.S. National Debt- A Risk Management Approach

Abstract:
The U.S. national debt reached the astounding figure of 22 trillion dollars in 2018 (Gomes & Sinclair, 2019). It splashed onto the headlines of newspapers and became a topic of interest for Nobel laureate economists, dividing opinions on the potential impacts and the necessity of corrective measures. Krugman (2019) advocates that the national debt is trivial for a large economy like the U.S.; whereas, economists, such as Summers (2019), assume a more cautious position in recommending clear restrictions on the never-ending rise in the national debt. Some intriguing questions persist: should measures to restrain or reduce the debt be taken? If so, what is the ideal time to put them into effect? The purpose of this study is to analyze the reasons for the increasing U.S. national debt and to raise a discussion on the ideas of these reputed economists to address these questions. Additionally, the fundamental principles of risk management have been explained to evaluate the national debt from a different perspective (Homan, 2013). The findings of this research show that there are similarities between the theory of risk management and the risk concerns involved in the U.S. national debt. The social impact of this research includes the potential for the risk management tools identified to be used in analyzing the sovereign national debt.

Full Text PDF: U.S. National Debt- A Risk Management Approach


How Small Interest Groups Can Win the Outcome of Elections and Polls: Lessons for Countries with Modern and Developing Democracies

Abstract:
It might sound perfectly obvious that in a real democracy, the majority’s interests will always win against the interests of the minority. Unfortunately, in reality, this is not the case. Small interest groups can determine the outcome of elections and enact policies that favor their own interests, rather than those of the majority. This paper identifies how, contrary to the median-voter’s model, small interest groups can win, if information asymmetries exist. Additionally, if gains and losses asymmetries are present and opportunity costs are involved for the voter, the same phenomena can occur. This article focuses on the role of interest groups in elections in democratic countries, explaining how they can enact policies that are against the public’s will.

Full Text PDF: How Small Interest Groups Can Win the Outcome of Elections and Polls: Lessons for Countries with Modern and Developing Democracies


Assessment of Efficacy of Lab-Based Learning in Enhancing Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking Among Learners

Abstract:
With technological innovations happening at workplaces, 21st century organizations demand competencies in thinking creatively and critically. These two skills will potentially help prospective employees become confident individuals, concerned citizens, self-directed learners, and active professionals. In this context, it becomes imperative to overhaul the lecture-based and banking model of the traditional pedagogical approach in order to impart such skills among undergraduate and graduate students. To address this issue, a lab-based teaching-learning method focused on problem-solving and design thinking was introduced at OAMK Labs in Finland. This study assesses the efficacy of lab-based learning in enhancing creativity and critical thinking among students from engineering, management, and science backgrounds of Kathmandu University, Nepal. The study was conducted in a workshop setting using a randomized control trial (RCT) where participants were divided into control and treatment groups. Participants in treatment group took part in a design thinking workshop that applied lab-based learning pedagogy, while those in the control group were given some reading material on improving creativity and critical thinking. Standard tests on both critical and creative thinking in a pre- and post-stages were administered to both groups. Data was analyzed using standard Difference-in-Differences technique. The results showed that while the level of critical thinking improved significantly, among the learners in treatment group alone, the creativity level in the post-stage increased significantly among learners in both groups. Results validated the efficacy of lab-based teaching-learning in addressing the need for critical and creative thinking skills among learners.

Full Text PDF: Assessment of Efficacy of Lab-Based Learning in Enhancing Critical Thinking and Creative Thinking Among Learners


Strategies for Reducing Employee Turnover in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

Abstract:
Employee turnover leads to increased operational costs and workloads and affects sales performance. Reducing employee turnover is essential for managers of small and medium sized enterprises to minimize costs and increase sales performance. Grounded in the job embeddedness theory, the purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore strategies the managers of small and medium sized enterprises use to reduce employee turnover that negatively affects sales performance. Data were collected using semistructured, face-to-face interviews, and a review of organizational documents. The participants consisted of three managers of small and medium sized enterprises in the Bronx, New York. After conducting the interviews, the interviews were transcribed. The transcripts and organizational documents were then uploaded into NVivo v12 software to analyze the data (i.e., organize data, create codes, and identify themes). The analysis revealed that recognition and rewards, training and career advancement opportunities, effective communication, and pay, compensation, and benefits are effective in helping to reduce employee turnover. Managers of small and medium sized enterprises may use the findings to devise recognition and reward strategies to decrease employee turnover. The findings and recommendations from this inquiry may help managers of small and medium sized enterprises, business leaders or owners, and human resource personnel to reduce employee turnover and improve sales performance, profitability, and competitiveness.

Full Text PDF: Strategies for Reducing Employee Turnover in Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises


Capital Market Linkage to Economic Growth in Nepal

Abstract:
This article examines the causal relationship between capital market development and economic growth in Nepal using annual time series data from 1994-2019. Total market capitalization is used as a proxy of secondary market development and the total public issue of securities in a particular year is taken as an indicator of primary market development. Using the Johansen cointegration test and vector error correction method (VECM) in regression analysis, the study reveals that capital markets in Nepal are supporting economic growth through efficient fundraising, efficient allocation of resources, fair price determination and liquidity. The findings from this study conclude that there is a unidirectional causality running from capital market development to economic growth in both the long-run and short-run. However, this study found no support for causality running from economic growth to the capital market. Therefore, the findings from this study recommend policies that increase the reach of the capital market to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and individual investors.

Keywords: capital market, economic growth in nepal, individual investors, capital market in nepal

Full Text PDF: Capital Market Linkage to Economic Growth in Nepal


Malnutrition Intervention in Low Socioeconomic Senior Populations

Abstract:
This study aims to identify the effectiveness of malnutrition intervention programs within senior populations. Government subsidized nutrition intervention programs, such as Meals on Wheels, play a vital role in the prevention of malnutrition in lower socioeconomic senior populations in the United States (Roy, 2006). For many older adults, meals received via nutrition programs serve as a lifeline, meeting essential nutritional needs and preventing premature institutionalized care (Lepore, 2019). Sixty-three Meals on Wheels (MOW) participants residing in Southern California were assessed, comparing nutritional status upon program intake against nutritional status after three to six months to identify improvement or decline. This study relied on self-reporting on the part of senior participants to explore the characteristics related to socioeconomic status and nutritional risk, and collect quantitative data. Further, it aimed to highlight whether nutritional risk was decreased through program usage. Access to the MOW nutrition program was found to correlate with a reduction in malnutrition risk among the participants in the study. Through the use of nutrition programs and their evaluations, malnutrition and malnutrition risk may be detected earlier, and subsequent measures for prevention can be employed.

Keywords: socioeconomic, senior populations, nutrition intervention programs,

Full Text PDF: Malnutrition Intervention in Low Socioeconomic Senior Populations


A Study on Assessing a Business Viability for Transition to a Circular Economy

Abstract:
The shift from the existing linear model of the economy to a circular model is gaining traction across business entities, nationally and globally. Minimal studies have been done that would support the circular transition for a business from an existing linear model. There is a significant gap between the formulation and implementation of circular strategies in business. This literature review explores the preexisting concepts of the business model canvas (BMC) and Value Hill tool for the implementation of circular strategies in a business by determining a Good Point for Transition (GPT). The favorable condition, where a business can transition from a linear economy (LE) to a circular economy (CE) is defined as a GPT. This study suggests a three-step generic process that would provide a company with clarity on how to incorporate circular strategies into their structure. Firstly, this review paper defines and elaborates upon the business model canvas (BMC) based on the prior work of Osterwalder and Pigneur (2010) and Lewandowski (2016). Secondly, it analyzes the Value Hill diagram, a strategic tool for circular activities that a business can use upon implementation of a circular model (Achterberg et al., 2016). Finally, this work will indicate how a circular strategy can be selected on the basis of assessment of the BMC and Value Hill diagram of a business. For a better understanding of the process, IKEA’s initiatives for circular strategies are used in the study. The paper concludes with a three-step generic model for determining GPT and emphasizes that the adoption of circular strategies for companies depends upon the circular expertise and resources they and their value chain partners have across the Value Hill diagram.

Keywords: Viability for transition, circular economy, diagram of a business

Full Text PDF: A Study on Assessing a Business Viability for Transition to a Circular Economy


Importance of Diversified Marketing Strategies for Fast Food Restaurant Chains

Abstract:
Every organization needs to consistently adjust operations and marketing strategies in order to perpetually satisfy consumers and reinforce dedication to the vision and mission of the company. The adjustments need to be made over time, according to situational influences as well as internal and external trends affecting consumer behavior. Without a proper marketing strategy, a company may go out of business due to internal and external organizational pressures. Nowadays, as the economies of countries worldwide show signs of crisis, fast food industry players need to adjust their marketing strategies in order to overcome the competition within new circumstances. This literature review demonstrates that in order to succeed in this competition, food chain companies need to combine multiple approaches and use omni-channel marketing campaigns. This article summarizes the research made over the last two decades and suggests topics in this area that can be further researched. The research documents, reviewed in chronological order, are peer-reviewed articles, conference papers, corporate websites and major media resources.

Keywords: Marketing Strategies for Fast Food, Marketing strategies for Restaurant Chains, Marketing strategies

Full Text PDF: Importance of Diversified Marketing Strategies for Fast Food Restaurant Chains


Discussion and Implications for Practice: Women Student Veterans and their Sense of Identity, Belonging, and Voice in Writing Courses and through Writing Assignments

Abstract:
Given the lack of published research on women student veterans as a group separate from men student veterans and the unique needs of women student veterans, individual attention needs to be paid to women student veterans. This qualitative study used feminist critical theory to examine the experiences of women student veterans during their transition process from the military to higher education regarding identity, belonging, and voice in connection with writing courses and writing assignments. Real-time in-depth narrative interviews were conducted with seven current or former women student veterans located across the United States. Analysis of the interviews revealed superordinate themes. These three superordinate themes were 1) military influence: lifestyle transition, identity, and writing; 2) peer connections in writing courses; and 3) writing instructor influence. The findings informed by the superordinate themes included women student veterans sometimes have difficulty transitioning from military writing to academic writing, women student veterans need peer connections in the writing classroom, and writing instructors hold much influence over belonging and voice for women student veterans. These findings led to three recommendations for future practice. The first recommendation was that writing workshops focusing on the differences between military writing and academic writing should be held for women student veterans by individual colleges and universities. The second recommendation was colleges and universities can establish and maintain writing groups for women student veterans in which they write and share narratives and poetry reflective of their military and other life experiences. The third recommendation was writing instructors should be trained on providing women student veterans with individualized attention and supportive feedback.

Keywords: women student veterans, writing courses, identity, belonging, voice

Full Text PDF: Discussion and Implications for Practice: Women Student Veterans and their Sense of Identity, Belonging, and Voice in Writing Courses and through Writing Assignments


Leadership in Marriage and Family Therapy Programs is Under-Explored: A Thematic, Narrative Overview

Abstract:
Institutions of higher education rely on identified leaders to continue the mission of the organization, hire and retain quality faculty and staff, and sustain and further develop vigorous academic programs that retain students and prepare graduates to enter the work force. Discipline specific departments are subject to many demands and resources are pulled in different directions. As a result, the body of literature on leadership in higher education is robust and diverse. However, research on leadership in graduate marriage and family therapy programs is paltry in addressing if a relationship exists between leaders and student capacity to employ skills in a field focused on relationships. This study was a thematic, narrative overview. An exhaustive search of literature was conducted over the span of four years. Articles were assessed for relevance and appropriateness, organized by theme, and the findings were consolidated and are presented within this article. The three identified themes were: leadership in higher education, rigor in marriage and family therapy programs, and leadership in marriage and family therapy programs and other mental health fields. Gaps were identified in the literature and include the role of leadership style identification and self-exploration, the extent to which program leaders interact with students, and how the relationship between administrators and students impacts the development of field related skills.

Keywords: leadership, higher education, marriage and family therapy, MFT programs, relational

Full Text PDF: Leadership in Marriage and Family Therapy Programs is Under-Explored: A Thematic, Narrative Overview


The influence of training courses, customer relationship, and human resource management on customer focus among construction companies

Abstract:
Reflecting upon language allows teachers, not only to have a greater insight on how English, the language they This study focuses on the influence of training courses, customer relationship and human resource management on customer focus among construction companies. This is due to the lack of information on its effectiveness. These problems may explain why the main players are less responsive to the implementation and practice of a mediating effect of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Human Resource management (HRM) on the relationship between Training Courses (TC) and Customer Focus (CF). It is essential that an appropriate model of CRM and HRM be used by administrators and professionals. The proposed model is based on the dependent variable, CF, and the independent variables, TC and mediator (CRM, HRM). This research is a descriptive-survey and inferential type based on the data collection method where parametric tests were used with the help of SPSS. The results of this research can be used in decision making, policy making, and also planning. In conclusion, it can be inferred that the relationship between CRM and HRM is still at its infancy stage, and as such, serious attention is needed among the players in the development of construction companies.

Keywords: customer relationship management, human resource management, house building company, customer focus, training courses

Full Text PDF: The influence of training courses, customer relationship, and human resource management on customer focus among construction companies